Intellex Acquires Expert by Big Village

We're thrilled to announce that Intellex has acquired Expert by Big Village, effective March 22, 2024. This strategic move enhances our capabilities and strengthens our commitment to delivering exceptional solutions to our customers.

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Expert Details

Food Microbiology, Toxicology, Preservation, and Spoilage; Yeasts; Clostridia; Botulinum Toxin

ID: 715577 Wisconsin, USA

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Expert's primary area of research is the study of botulinum toxin in the gram-positive pathogen Clostridium botulinum. Much of his work has been devoted to methods for the prevention of toxin formation in foods. He has also contributed to the development of botulinum toxin as a pharmaceutical and in manufacturing botulinum toxins under GMP conditions.

Expert's laboratory has investigated the use of naturally occurring antimicrobials to enhance the microbiological safety and to extend the shelf-life of foods. The research has centered on the control of gram-positive bacteria, especially Clostridium botulinum (which causes Botulism) and Listeria monocytogenes. Additionally, they have used antimicrobials to control undesirable microbial changes in foods. A significant part of his group's effort has been dedicated to developing natural antimicrobials including enzymes, lipids, and carbohydrates as preservatives. They also have developed physical methods for inactivation of bacterial spores.

Expert's research program is dedicated to enhancing the microbiological safety of foods. In particular, he has studied methods and processes to control gram-positive bacterial pathogens in minimally processed and refrigerated foods. These bacterial pathogens are, primarily, Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. His work has involved the detection of botulinum toxins. In addition, he has had extensive experience in the microbiological safety of fermented foods. Expert is an authority in Botulism and other microbial foodborne poisonings, including Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria, and other bacteria. He has participated in the investigation of food poisonings and has also been involved in the training of food inspectors through FDA training courses.

The primary area of Expert's university research and industrial involvement is in the microbiological safety of raw and processed foods. He has investigated problems resulting from various microbial pathogens affecting food. Most of his efforts have been in controlling pathogenic gram-positive bacteria, especially Clostridium botulinum. He has also conducted research on other pathogens and spoilage organisms including Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and yeasts. His laboratory has conducted numerous challenge studies with pathogens to assess the safety and shelf-life of foods. This testing is particularly important when a food is processed using a new technology (e.g. modified atmosphere packaging, irradiation) or when a food is reformulated. Expert has assisted the food industry in designing safe foods and processes, and in meeting the requirements of regulatory agencies.

From 1985 to present, Expert has been involved in the production, purification, detection, and scientific and medicinal uses of microbial toxins, particularly botulinum neurotoxin. Detection of clostridial toxins by bioassays and immunological methods has been a research focus of his laboratory. He has made scientific contributions to the control of clostridial infections in humans and animals and in the development of botulinum neurotoxin as a pharmaceutical.

A significant portion of Expert's career in food microbiology has involved the development of methods and technologies to prevent the microbiological spoilage of foods. In particular, he has investigated the spoilage of foods by gram-positive bacteria and yeasts.

Botulinum neurotoxin is produced in foods, in wounds, and in the intestine of susceptible infants and adults. Botulinum neurotoxins are produced by certain strains of clostridia. Since they are the most poisonous substances known, they are of considerable concern to the food industry and regulatory agencies. The prevention of botulinum toxin in foods is a primary goal of manufacturers of minimally processed refrigerated foods. Several approaches can be used to prevent growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum in foods including inactivation of spores, formulation of foods to prevent growth, and processing of foods to eliminate toxin. Food challenge studies and testing for toxin are used to ascertain the effectiveness of preservation strategies.


Preparation of GRAS petitions for food ingredientsTechnical reviews and site visits of food ingredient manufacturing facilitiesDesign of food formulation strategies to prevent growth and survival of pathogens and spoilage bacteria and fungiProduction of botulinum toxins for non-medical uses. Testing for microbial toxins and pathogens in foods.


Year Degree Subject Institution
Year: 1983 Degree: SCD Subject: Food Microbiology Institution: MIT
Year: 1978 Degree: MS Subject: Food Science Institution: University of California, Davis
Year: 1976 Degree: BS Subject: Fermentation Science Institution: University of California, Davis

Work History

Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1996 to Present Employer: Undisclosed Title: Professor Department: Food Microbiology and Toxicology/Food Research Institute
Expert directs laboratories that conduct research on the microbiological safety and spoilage of foods. He specializes in prevention of botulinum toxin formation and growth/survival of pathogens and spoilage organisms, including Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and yeast and lactic acid bacteria spoilage. He develops formulation strategies to prevent growth of undesirable pathogenic and spoilage organisms. He also assays toxins, particularly botulinum toxin. He has been involved in the production and formulation of botulinum toxin for pharmaceutical uses. Lastly, he conducts research on carotenoid production by yeasts.
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1990 to 1995 Employer: University of Wisconsin Title: Associate Professor Department: Food Microbiology and Toxicology/Food Research Institute
Available upon request.
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1985 to 1990 Employer: University of Wisconsin Title: Assistant Professor Department: Food Microbiology and Toxicology/Food Research Institute
Available upon request.
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1983 to 1985 Employer: Harvard Medical School Title: Postdoctoral Research Associate/Assistant Instructor Department: Dept. Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
He conducted basic research on the physiology of gram-negative bacteria, including Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1980 to 1983 Employer: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Title: Sc.D. Candidate Department: Food Science and Nutrition
He studied industrial microbiology and fermentations, specializing in clostridial fermentations and enzyme production
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1978 to 1980 Employer: Bodega Marine Laboratory/UC Berkeley Title: Research Technician Department: Aquaculture
He conducted research on the aquaculture of crustacea including lobsters and shrimp.
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1972 to 1978 Employer: University of California - Davis Title: B.S. and M.S. Candidate Department: Food Science
He conducted research on the production of carotenoids, particularly astaxanthin by the yeast Phaffia/Xanthophyllomyces

Government Experience

Years Agency Role Description
Years: 1995 to Present Agency: USDA/FDA Role: Reviewer of grant proposals Description:
Years: 1998 to Present Agency: Army Role: Reviewer of research activities Description:

International Experience

Years Country / Region Summary
Years: 1986 to 1992 Country / Region: EU Summary: Assist in the development in industrial fermentations for yeast carotenoids
Years: 1990 to 1994 Country / Region: Pacific Rim Summary: Assist in the development in industrial fermentations for yeast carotenoids. Evaluate nutraceutical technology.
Years: 1995 to Present Country / Region: South America Summary: Evaluate public health policy for control of foodborne pathogens

Career Accomplishments

Associations / Societies
Expert is an active member of several scientific societies. These include the American Society for Microbiology, the Institute for Food Technologists, the Society for Industrial Microbiology, the International Association for Food Safety and the American Chemical Society.
Professional Appointments
Expert serves on the editorial boards of 5 scientific journals.
Awards / Recognition
He was awarded the Educator Award from the International Association for Food Safety and is was elected to the American Academy of Microbiology. He was also the chair of the Food Microbiology division of ASM in 1997.
Publications and Patents Summary
Expert has published over 90 research articles, 20 book chapters and has edited one book.

Additional Experience

Expert Witness Experience
Expert has served as an expert witness in several legal cases involving food recalls and foodborne illnesses.
Training / Seminars
Expert has presented seminars and short courses to the Food Industry on food microbiology, emerging trends in foodborne disease, and aspects of food biotechnology.
Marketing Experience
Expert has a small business for the supply of microbial toxins for nonmedical uses.

Fields of Expertise

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