Intellex Acquires Expert by Big Village

We're thrilled to announce that Intellex has acquired Expert by Big Village, effective March 22, 2024. This strategic move enhances our capabilities and strengthens our commitment to delivering exceptional solutions to our customers.

Stay tuned for more updates on how this acquisition will benefit our clients and experts.

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Expert Details

Adhesive Consulting, Formulating, & Research in Structural, PSA, Hot Melt, Epoxy, Urethane, & Wood

ID: 722290 Canada

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Expert D. Expert has done adhesive failure analysis projects in connection with establishing cause in litigation cases or in research and production problems. For example, a wood millwork manufacturer claimed an adhesive was faulty, resulting in customer loss and damages. Examination of opened glue lines showed absence of wetting and lack of adhesive transfer to both joined surfaces. Expert used chemical color indicators and photomicroscopy to argue that the adhesive was excessively advanced in polymerization at arrival on the user's site, i.e., over date in inventory and not usable. This case was settled favorably. His additional experience in failure analysis has involved lab work to determine undercure, over-penetration, cohesive strength, surface energy, and moisture as adhesive failure factors.

Adhesive formulation has been a focus of Expert' activities in many projects. For a client with a difficult bonding problem, the approach is often to assess Employeradhesives, and then perform a source search for a better commercial adhesive. If a solution is not found in a worldwide source search, a special formulation, specific to the circumstances is offered for development by Expert in the lab. Toll manufacture of the formulation can be arranged. All ownership and any asociated IP is assigned to the client. An example of a special formulation was a flexible cold cure urethane adhesive for re-bonded polyurethane carpet underpad. This formulation was successfully used for years, bonding millions of pounds of underpad. A Employerexample of formulation work is a urethane-acrylate adhesive for structural wood laminates. This adhesive cures instantly under electron beam irradiation, or more slowly with peroxide catalysis. Several special structural acrylic adhesives were developed by Expert for example, a high temperature acrylic conformant with ASTM D 7247 for wood structures. Expert was engaged for 12 years in troubleshooting wood adhesives in plywood, oriented strand board (OSB), and laminate mills. His background is strong in hot press phenolics, ureas, and in melamine overlay adhesives. His participation in the furniture and building component industries as an adhesive supplier provides background in PVA and resorcinol adhesives. His experience in hot melt, water borne emulsion polymer isocyanates, methacrylate, epoxy and polyurethane adhesives has accrued in source selection, troubleshooting, and formulating tasks during consulting activities over the past 12 years. These activities have been within both a large corporate employment and a private small consulting sphere. Trouble shooting structural phenolic adhesives were engaged in Spain (2004) and hot melt adhesive prodcut lines were developed for in Russia.

Expert' adhesive selection process searches the available spectrum of adhesives and selects the best technology within the context of the client's criteria. This worldwide search is done impartially with regard to the adhesive suppliers, and starts with broad category screening and ends with proof testing final candidates. Factory scale or accreditation testing may also be necessary. An example from Expert’ career is that of a concrete form panel manufacturer normally overlaying his plywood with hot press-bonded phenolic thermoset paper facing. The consulting task was to structurally bond an overlay polyolefin (PP or HDPE) sheet to the plywood. This provided improved non-stick form panels and new potential for agricultural bin panels. After defining correct corona surface energy levels, several warm/cold cure adhesives were selected which met all criteria allowing the client's project to go forward. In another example a hot melt adhesive binding asphalt building paper vapor barrier to steel at elevated temperature was sought. A modified commercial formulation was developed and became an exclusive toll manufactured adhesive for the client.

Expert was a partner and technical director at Seafoam Products Ltd., Vancouver, Canada for eight years before its sale to Woodbridge Foam Inc. Prior background to this was his university training in polymer chemistry and his employment in PU systems formulation for 2 years with a California firm. Rigid, flexible, and microcellular solids were formulated.

The Seafoam startup manufactured flexible polyurethane (PU) foam on a conventional low-pressure conveyor line running at 200 lb./minute. Flexible foam products were formulated and developed by Expert in the lab and carried through to success in production for customers in furniture, carpet underpad, RV, military, and institutional markets. Both cold cure and steam cure binder formulations were developed for rebond carpet underlay. The products met prescribed codes and standards for Canada and the U.S., as well as meeting practical fatigue performance criteria demanded by the marketplace. He also developed high resilience, filled, and FR foams using MDI/TDI blends. At Seafoam he developed integral skin molded flex foams, sold as liquid systems. In addition, Expert developed flexible urethane coatings, 2 part PU plywood patch and adhesives as ancillary products for Seafoam.

Expert was employed at Borden Chemical Ltd., Vancouver, BC as a research worker engaged in development of spinning disk phenolic resin adhesives for oriented strand board (OSB), plywood, and resorcinol blends for lumber laminates. More recently, he developed phenolic-catalyst-isocyanate resin blends for OSB for disk spray application and very short press times. In the plywood business, Expert helped implement roll spreader, airless spray, foam, and curtain coater phenolic adhesive applications in various mills from 1987-97. As part of a later technical management position at Weldwood Ltd., he performed mill troubleshooting of phenolic plywood resin problems such as hot press blisters, low bond durability, and low specific adhesion.

Expert was manager of plywood quality control and research at Weldwood Ltd. (Div. of International Paper) for 12 years; Weldwood operated five plywood mills, both hardwood and softwood. Expert' activities and product engagements concerned plywood urethane synthetic patch compound test and development, new phenolic overlays for concrete form, improved veneer drying schedules, high veneer moisture operation of a plywood mill, mill quality audits, statistical data programs for the mills, QC laboratory management, sonic modulus sorting of veneer, troubleshooting bond durability and hot press blister excursions in the mills, claims settlement, litigation investigation, and due diligence technical studies for new operations acquisitions, e.g. laminated veneer lumber. In summary, he gained a rounded experience in the plywood business and its technology.

Expert notes that polyurethane reactive hot melts (PUR) have developed with assembly of recreation vehicles as a major target market during the past decade. He has been engaged in evaluation and development of hot melt and moisture cure urethane adhesives because of involvement as a technical service manager for a wood-based panel manufacturer. He tested commercial and developmental PUR
adhesives against the code acceptance standard for bond durability, and the potentials for fast processing of LVL as a result of using PUR were discussed. Expert presently maintains R&D formulation and test capabilities for reactive hot melts, and urethane adhesives for bonding wood, metal, FRP, and elastomers.

Expert operated a test laboratory for Canada's largest plywood manufacturer for 12 years, and presently consults at an academic institution's wood adhesive lab. During outsource engagements, urea, phenolic, PVA, EPI melamine, moisture cure urethane, resorcinol and isocyanate wood adhesives have been evaluated. This included adhesives for plywood, particleboard, OSB, LVL, MDF, glulam, furniture, building components, edge gluing, profile wrapping, laminating, and small wood products assembly. Expert is expert in wood adhesive codes and standards. In a typical case, a sample of questionable marine grade plywood was evaluated against US standard NSTI PS1-95 for a client. Another compared plywood laminate constructions for truck decking application. Expert sat on a technical committee for development of new wood adhesive standards for glued lumber in Canada (NLGA).

Expert frequently evaluates and corrects the bonding fault of adhesion loss. The skills and understanding that he obtained in graduate school are kept Employerby membership with and readings provided by the Adhesion Society. He uses his expertise with surface energy estimation, corona treatments, and surfactant formulation additives to correct industrial adhesion loss and specific adhesion problems on low surface energy substrates. Instrumentation and materials for measuring adhesive/surface interactions of this kind are maintained as part of the EDH adhesive laboratory. At the University of B.C. graduate school he surveyed primers and coupling agents for preventing adhesion loss in wood-thermoplastic composites. In consultancy, he has solved loss of adhesion under environmental stress or heat using reformulation and alternate adhesive selection. For example, Expert sourced and tested a PUR hot melt adhesive for a difficult water repellent treated fabric bonding application.

Expert’ industrial experience in laminated wood extends to most aspects of hot and cold press plywood, comply, LVL, glulam, resin-paper overlays, and metal-wood laminates. Expert gained early experience at Borden Chemical. This further included customer technical service and lab work with PVA edge gluing and hot melt edge banding. His experience with LVL adhesives dates to 1969 in LVL gluing studies under J. Bohlen (engineer and Greenpeace founder) at the Canadian FPL, now Forintek. Recent work in laminating wood has focused on dynamic and ultrasonic preparatory sorting of lamina by modulus grade. Expert is expert in this critical feature of contemporary glulam and LVL. Fundamentals obtained as a physics major undergraduate provide him with required background in this field. Only a handful of consultants offer a comprehensive statistical description of a species modulus profile for new mill or new species utilization. Because these structural wood products are valued according to performance modulus, the information is critical to economic planning. Expert offers a full-scale ultrasonic grade inventory and test program permitting technical assessment of LVL proposals. His resource evaluation was key in Weldwood Canada's $104 million acquisition of sunpine Forest Products Ltd (1999). These above-mentioned surveys are done with partners at the American Plywood Association and Canadian Plywood Association.

Expert’ Ph.D. thesis topic was on quantifying the orientation of strands using a probability distribution function, and then presenting a strength algorithm for modeling composite strength and modulus as a function of orientation level. The algorithm assumed ideal adhesive bonding between strands. Results of this showed that strength declines very rapidly with the orientation parameter. Lost economies in density can be recovered by careful attention to orientation in modern OSB. Further application research by Expert at Borden Chemical later showed effects on OSB strength of various fractions of strand surfaces devoid of adhesive spread. He learned to specify extra capacity adhesive disk blenders when building OSB mills. Design of OSB blenders was an outsource activity of his in the 1980s. In further consultancy work, multi-component additives at the spinning disk blender were evaluated. Isocyanate catalysts and co-reactants shortened press times dramatically. Expert is also experienced in the use of alternate OSB species. For example, dry, insect damaged, lodgepole pine was experimentally prepared in graduate school. This example predicts difficulty in the economic production of OSB from this resource unless the wood is obtained at extreme low cost. His subsequent employment at Weldwood assigned him to structural analysis and design of OSB with veneer laminate.

In his work with two-part adhesives, Expert’ experience is deepest in polyurethanes (PU), beginning in the 1970s with employment at Polymir Industries formulating foam and solid PU systems. In later work at Seafoam Products, he developed a PU two-part adhesive synthetic patch compound for plywood. This work later supported a specification and performance standard prepared by the Canadian Plywood Association for this type of compound. At Weldwood of Canada’s Technical Service Department, Expert evaluated no-formaldehyde two-part phenol-resorcinol adhesives for wood finger jointing. Such adhesives, cured with oxazolidines, permit marketers such as LEEDS to provide endorsements more easily. More recently, Expert has formulated two-part epoxies for use in bonding marble to FRP honeycomb support panels at Stoneworks of Art, Inc. Employerexamples of his two-part structural adhesive formulations include a solventless node adhesive for aluminum honeycomb HOBE blocks, and a polybutadiene urethane adhesive for EPDM rubber to rubber adhesive.

An example of ultraviolet polymer curing in Expert’ recent experience is his formulation of an extended temperature range, high impact, UV cure, PSA assembly tape for an automotive trim application. He has a thorough knowledge of the formulation principals of UV-PSAs and the associated oligomers, monomers, and photoinitiators available contemporarily. Another UV-PSA formulated by Expert is a proprietary shrink label roll feed adhesive. The cure in this case has a low temperature hot melt primary application stage followed by a secondary UV stage taking place in 1 to 2 seconds. UV energy is required to penetrate the transparent shrink film. His EDH Technical Services laboratory built special UV irradiation equipment for these projects. This versatile radiation cure conveyor equipment permits a wide range of UV cure adhesives and coatings to be developed.

Emulsion and water solution adhesives have an eminent place in Expert’ repository of skills and experience. As a Borden Chemical employee he tailored PVA adhesives to nonstructural applications on wood, metals, and textiles. During his Borden Chemical employment, he also completed competitive evaluations of emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI) adhesives made by Ashland Specialties. More recently (2002), he prescribed EPI adhesives for a client who was structurally bonding veneer by cold press methods. He has also done some basic work in formulating EPI adhesives. Expert has a comprehensive knowledge base in solution- and colloidal-based phenolic and urea adhesives. This is founded on 12 years as technical manager for Weldwood of Canada, specializing in adhesives and wood technology. Water-soluble phenolic plywood adhesives have been a pillar of his support to long-time consulting clients. Expert recently formulated a high-performance water-based epoxy adhesive as an aluminum honeycomb node adhesive for aerospace and marine applications. His working knowledge of Pemulen polyacrylate emulsifiers played a role in these epoxy formulations.

Expert’ most recent (2003-4) adhesive film task was bonding decorative wood veneer to 1.5 mm-thick anodized aluminum sheet. The architectural panel product was previously laminated using wet PVA adhesive, having no water resistance and hot press blister problems. The full range of contemporary thermoplastic polymer films was surveyed in lab screen testing; this included polyolefins, polyesters, polyurethanes, and polyamides. Success was found with paper-saturated thermoset resin films such as phenolic and melamine types used in his previous work in bonding thin veneer without color bleed-through. Another of Expert’ (2003) adhesive film material projects completed an evaluation and adhesive selection for textile fabric laminated to polyurethane foam. These adhesives tasks are often best solved by guided trial and error because of the complex interactions between melt flow, wetting, surface affinity, and polymer durability. His experience and broad adhesives background helps bring the adhesive selection search projects to timely conclusions.

As a consultant to Westlam Industries Ltd., a plywood maufacturer, Expert designed and tested several methods for structurally bonding polyethylene, polypropylene, and FRP sheet overlay to plywood panel products. He completed a conceptual research project in 2001-02, designing and testing adhesives for electron beam cure at 5-cm depth within structural wood laminates. UV and peroxide cures were also developed for this acrylate hybrid structural wood adhesive.Developed several advanced pressure sensitive adhesives for Avery Dennison Corp., Painseville Ohio, in outsource contracts 2003-05.He formulated and tested a clear epoxy adhesive for bonding FRP honeycomb backing to marble veneer for Stoneworks of Art, Miami, FL., 2003.
Node adhesives was defined for 2 makers of aerospace aluminum honeycomb. Epoxy and phenolic toughening stratgies were studied.Other examples of his adhesive selection, sourcing, optimizing, formulation, and test projects from 2002-2005 include:
A high temperature PUR adhesive was selected and tested for bonding water repellent fabric to flexible PU foam for Sitonit Corp., Anaheim, CA;
A thermosetting phenolic film adhesive for bonding aluminum sheet to wood veneer was selected and tested for Ceilings Plus, Los Angeles, CA; and,
A special high temperature hot melt adhesive was formulated for bonding asphalt paper to expanded metal at Dietrich Industries, McDonough. GA.


Year Degree Subject Institution
Year: 1990 Degree: Ph.D. Subject: Wood Products Engineering-Forestry Institution: University of British Columbia
Year: 1971 Degree: M.S. Subject: Wood Products Engineering-Forestry Institution: State University of New York at Syracuse University
Year: 1967 Degree: B.S. Subject: Physics/Chemistry Institution: University of British Columbia

Work History

Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1999 to Present Employer: Undisclosed Title: Associate Consultant Department: Adhesives and Polymers Consulting
Expert is a polymeric adhesives consultant. He conducts outsource consulting in the topic areas of: adhesive troubleshooting, formulation, optimization, adhesive testing, adhesive selection, purchase sourcing, adhesives research, structural adhesives, hot melt adhesives, pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), UV adhesives, EB adhesives, epoxy formulation, polyurethane formulation, water based adhesives, wood products adhesives, marine adhesives, industrial assembly adhesives, and honeycomb adhesives.
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1987 to 1999 Employer: Softwood Research Title: Manager, Softwood Research & Q.C. Department: Technical Services,corporate staff consulting
He was responsible for wood technology requirements in five plywood mills and eight sawmills, with participation in wood adhesives purchasing, quality control, and research activities.
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1982 to 1985 Employer: (Undisclosed) Title: Manager Department: Environmental Laboratory
Expert was responsible for environmental analytical services to the forest industry, primarily pulp and paper, and chemical, plastics, and polymer industries.
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1979 to 1981 Employer: (Undisclosed) Title: Technical Representative Department: Research/Technical Service
He conducted research in application methods for wood products adhesives and fieldwork with resin users in manufacturing various glued wood products. e.g. plywood adhesives, laminate adhesives, OSB, LVL adhesives, glue laminated timber.
Years Employer Title Department
Years: 1972 to 1980 Employer: (Undisclosed) Title: Technical Director Department: Urethane Foam Manufacture
Expert was startup director for a slab line facility pouring flexible urethane for carpet underlay and furniture foam. Other products developed were synthetic patch for plywood, urethane adhesives, and rigid urethane insulation foams.

Government Experience

Years Agency Role Description
Years: 1993 to 1996 Agency: Forintec Canada Role: Technical Advisor Description: Sat on research planning committees assembled for industry input into government-sponsored wood products research activity.

International Experience

Years Country / Region Summary
Years: 1998 to 2018 Country / Region: USA Summary: Much of the work experience Expert obtained in employment at Seafoam Products Ltd., Canada, and at Weldwood Canada Ltd. was in serving U.S. customers or employers. This employment was technical service in nature in the wood products and chemical plastics and resins industries.
Years: 2003 to 2003 Country / Region: Spain Summary: Worked at ENCE forest Products, Galicia, Spain to successfully improve press production rate of eucalyptus plywood. Structural quality improvements in phenolics for this are continued currently as an internal project at EDH Technical Services Ltd.

Career Accomplishments

Associations / Societies
Expert is a past professional member of The Forest Products Society, an ASTM committee member, and is a Employermember of The Adhesion Society.
Licenses / Certifications
He has auditor qualification to ISO 9001-2 quality management series. He also holds professional teaching certification.
Publications and Patents Summary
In addition to several personal journal publications, Expert published and retains files on adhesives internal research records, reports and projects undertaken by Canada's largest wood composite firm (Weldwood of Canada) over the period from 1956 to 1998.

Additional Experience

Expert Witness Experience
Expert began expert witness activity for a plaintiff in 2001. This involved rebuttal of the defendant's deposition. Technical analysis, physical evidence, and simplified summary were features of this success. His attorney support included physical sample preparation, microscopy, and photography. The case was settled to the plaintiff's satisfaction. Cases similar to this, during the 2001-2010 years of consulting, have be engaged at a rate of about one per year. Two depositions have been made.

Over the past 20 years of consulting about 10 depositions have been given with no court testimonies in the USA. One court testimony was given in Canada. With the notable exception of a 3 year US patent case (Havco vs Rockland, Wisconsin), most litigation expert witness cases have concerned failure of adhesives.
Training / Seminars
Expert's training as a teacher has been of use in explaining to attorneys how adhesives work. He developed and regularly presented a wood gluing seminar for mill workers and managers at Weldwood of Canada (Canada's largest plywood manufacturer). Difficult concepts such as standard deviation were explained, enabling statistical concepts to be used by workers in quality control.
Vendor Selection
Expert participated directly in negotiating phenolic adhesive contracts with a value of $6 million/year. Recent activities (1999-2000) have focused on balancing the cost/performance equation and proof-testing candidate adhesives selected from various national firms.
Marketing Experience
In undertaking due diligence studies for corporate acquisitions as a consultant to Weldwood (International Paper Corp.) he acquired an understanding of commodity and boutique niche marketing of adhesives and wood products.
Other Relevant Experience
Consultant Past Cases:
2007-8 Structural urethane, isocyanurate and acrylic adhesives were developed for heat resistant applications. One hour ASTM D 7247 heat resistance to 220 C was achieved in structural wood adhesives.

2003 - 4 -5. EDH performed research on pressure sensitive adhesive prototypes based on anhydride/half ester elastomers and isocyanate /oxazolidine adhesives capable of moisture curing in structural use.

Spain 2004-5 . Durability failures and low productivity in manufacturing eucalyptus plywood were improved. This wood species is difficult to bond structurally. Progress was made, press productivity was doubled.

Brazil 2010-11 A product family of EVA based hot melt adhesives for woodworking and edge banding was developed.

Cairo, Egypt 2010-11 EVA based hot melt adhesives for packaging and bookbinding developed for adhesives distributor.

Moscow, Russia 2008-10 Furniture edge-banding EVA-EBA hot melt formulation was developed and China-Asia sourcing located. Reactive hot melt (HM-PUR) formulation development and testing provided.

Alberta Canada 1999-2003. A technical due diligence study and glued wood products resource evaluation was prepared for the Hinton acquisition, $104M. Continuing laminated veneer lumber technical studies were done for this division.

2004. A specialized high cure speed wood adhesive formulation was developed for test at Raute.

2009 Polycarbonate to magnet metal adhesives troubleshooting and source selection provided.

2008 Bituminous roofing adhesives were evaluated.

2004-9. EDH provides consulting in lamination of PVC, polyolefin, and wood veneers to aluminum sheet for architectural paneling at CP. Troubleshooting and claims consulting tasks have also been undertaken.

2008 Attorney support in litigation, and deposition -- a PSA backed decal failed in a marine environment.

Arizona, 2007 Fire retardant polyiscyanaurate insulation foam formulations for molding blocks were developed and tested.

Michigan, 2007 Adhesive durability testing techniques using automatic bond testers was provided.

2006 Adhesive R&D for sprayed cellulosic fiber insulation. Natural derived adhesives were sought.

2006 Troubleshooting services were provided for a contact cement failure, panelboard application.

2006 EDH provided a source search and test program for UV and other acrylic adhesives bonding medical devices.

Utah 2006-7 EDH supplied troubleshooting services concerning low temperature performance PSAs for sporting equipment, formulation, testing, and sourcing.

2006-7 Attorney support related to adhesive internal bond failure in oriented strand board (OSB) roof panel.

2006 Evaluation of re-grind, powdered polyurethane flex foam scrap in OSB panel board adhesives as extender.

2006-7 OSHA regulatory tests and approvals were obtained for the client on glued wood laminate scaffold planking imported from China.

2006 A report on use of emulsified paraffin wax in oriented strand board adhesives was prepared.

2005-6 Hot melt, high temperature SBC adhesives for asphaltic paper to metal bonding were formulated and tested.

2005. A UV cured acrylic PSA for heat shrink BOP labels was developed.

2005. Declaration review, and attorney support was provided on a glued wood products (OSB) failure litigation case.

2004-9 Special epoxy formulations were prepared for bonding FRP to marble stone.

2004 Stress and laminate analysis of plywood laminates were supplied by EDH. Polyolefin overlays for plywood were developed using Ashland EPI-isocyanate adhesives.

2005 An expansion joint for parkade concrete slab flooring was in need of adhesive improvement because of water leaks and mechanical failure. A study and testing study provided a 100% solids replacement for the solvent borne adhesive that was previously in use.

2003. EDH helped Sitonit Seating find a reactive hot melt adhesive for assembly of institutional seating. The post curing hot melt adhesive replaced solvent type candidates and thermoplastic adhesives that failed in high temperature transport and hot intermodal container shipping environment to S. Am. customers.

2002. A resorcinol novolak adhesive with polyamine cure accelerator was developed for Synergy.

2008-9 Complex polyamide hot melt adhesive formulations were formulated to meet exacting cosmetic requirements.

2008 Formulation and rheological (creep) aspects of an asphalt based PSA membrane adhesive were tested and mathematically modeled.

Language Skills

Language Proficiency
French Expert notes that he has "speaking and oral comprehension survival skills" in French & Spanish.

Fields of Expertise

adhesive failure analysis, adhesive formulation, adhesive selection, flexible urethane foam, phenolic wood adhesive, plywood, polyurethane reactive hot-melt adhesive, wood adhesive bond durability, adhesion loss, adhesive compounding, laminated wood, oriented strand board, two-part adhesive, ultraviolet polymer curing, water-based adhesive, adhesive material film, veneer, hollow PVC panel, composite preform, aluminum laminate, wood discoloration, aqueous adhesive, composite material selection, Douglas fir, adhesive pump, pressure treating, ultraviolet-curable pressure-sensitive adhesive, adhesive curing, solventless adhesive, black liquor, wood stain, adhesion science, thermosetting adhesive formulation, wood-based composite, wood waste, pressure-sensitive tape, wood coating, delignification, balsam, wood thermal property, wood electrical property, wood mechanical property, wood physical property, wood degradation, composite material mechanical property, adhesive application process, adhesive formulation technology, fireplace log, furniture component, cellulosic material mechanical behavior, wood product manufacturing, wood product engineering, adhesive application, wood technology, wood science, forest product, waste-to-steam, wood gluing, wood by-product, reconstituted wood product, laminate material, energy-efficient wood processing, adhesive failure, physical bonding, laminating, wood product, wood preservation, sulfite pulping, pulpwood, polymer selection, particleboard, material substitution process, lumber, heartwood, fiber, deciduous wood, coniferous wood, composite material, adhesive testing

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